INGLESE: The company history and modern times
Arthur Guinness, born in 1725 in Co. Kildare, was the son of Richard Guinness, among whose duties was to supervise the brewing of beer for the workers on the estate. As Arthur grew up, he helped his father with his work.
When, in 1752,
Arthur was left an inheritance of £100, he used the money to start his
own brewery in Leixlip with his brother Richard. Just three years later, he
handed the business over to Richard and went to
On December 31st 1759, Arthur Guinness signed a lease on the St. James's Gate Brewery for 9,000 years at £45 per annum. The brewery he bought was small, disused and ill-equipped. So began the Guinness brewing legend. Ever since, the St. James's Gate Brewery has been at the heart of the success of Guinness.
Growth and expansion
By the 1770s the now famous Guinness porter was being brewed. In 1799 the decision was made to concentrate solely on brewing extra stout porter instead of the weaker ale that was then being produced.
The late eighteenth century marked a period of rapid growth, with the first major expansion of the brewery taking place. In 1803 Arthur Guinness died, and his son Arthur Guinness II took over.
By 1833 St.
James's Gate Brewery had become the largest brewery in
Under Edward Cecil Guinness, in 1873, the size of the brewery doubled and spread north to bound the river Liffey.
Largest brewery in the world
By 1886, Guinness had become the largest brewery in the world, with an annual production of 1.2 million barrels. An illustration of the global profile that Guinness now had was the appointment of Overseas Travellers in the 1890s.
international quality controllers. They travelled abroad to ensure that the
Guinness sold outside of
This commitment to quality has been a cornerstone of the brewing process up to the present day.
The beginning of the 20th century saw further expansion and at its peak more than 4,000 people were directly employed at St. James's Gate. By 1914, output had reached almost three million barrels annually.
Guinness also grew stronger as a truly global brand. Foreign Extra Stout, a variant of the original Guinness stout, fortified specifically for export, was shipped - and later brewed - in countries across the world. Foreign Extra Stout now accounts for over 40% of the Guinness sold worldwide.
With the launch of draught Guinness as it is now known, in the 1950s, Guinness further increased in popularity and its distribution widened.
Guinness is the
world's leading stout, sold in more than 150 countries worldwide. Despite being
a hugely successful brand, in
The start of Diageo
In May 1997
Guinness and Grand Metropolitan merged to form a new company, tentatively
called GMG Brands. Seven months later the £12 billion ($19 billion)
merger, the largest in
Diageo was centred on brands. At its founding, the company had four main businesses: United Distillers & Vintners (UDV), Pillsbury, Guinness, and Burger King. UDV (which generated about 45 percent of overall revenue) was a combination of the numerous leading liquor brands of Guinness's United Distillers unit and GrandMet's International Distillers & Vintners unit; UDV became the world's number one distiller upon its formation. Pillsbury (29 percent) retained GrandMet's four packaged-food megabrands: Pillsbury, Green Giant, Häagen-Dazs, and Old El Paso. Guinness (18 percent) included such stellar brewing brands as Guinness, Harp, Kilkenny, Cruzcampo of Spain, Red Stripe, and Kaliber. Burger King (8 percent) trailed only McDonald's among the world's hamburger chains. Bull and Greener were named co-chairmen of Diageo, while McGrath became Diageo's first chief executive.
Refocusing on Premium Drinks
By 2000 Diageo had endured three years of criticism from analysts unimpressed by the outcome of the Grand Met-Guinness merger. The company's sales were sluggish and its share price was sinking. A new management team took over that year, led by Lord Blyth, chairman of the Boots Company PLC, who was named non-executive chairman, and Paul Walsh, the new chief executive, who had previously headed Pillsbury. Walsh immediately began shaking up the firm. UDV and Guinness were combined into a single beverage division, Guinness UDV. More dramatically, Walsh narrowed the company to a single focus: premium drinks. In mid-2000 Diageo announced s to divest both Pillsbury and Burger King. Pillsbury was ultimately sold to General Mills, Inc. in October 2001 for about $6 billion in stock and the assumption of $5.1 billion in debt. Diageo emerged with a 33 percent stake in General Mills, but by late 2005 Diageo had completely divested this holding. In December 2002, meantime, Diageo completed its exit from the food industry with the sale of Burger King to a consortium led by Texas Pacific Group Inc. in a £940 million ($1.5 billion) deal. Also divested during this period was the Guinness World Records business, which was sold in July 2001 to Gullane Entertainment for £45.5 million ($64.5 million).
its Park Royal brewery in
Diageo Ireland; Diageo Great Britain Limited; Diageo Scotland Limited; Diageo Brands BV (Netherlands); Diageo North America, Inc. (U.S.A.); Diageo Capital plc; Diageo Finance plc; Diageo Capital BV (Netherlands); Diageo Finance BV (Netherlands); Diageo Investment Corporation (U.S.A.).
Europe; Diageo International; Diageo North
Pernod Ricard SA; Bacardi & Company Limited; Brown-Forman Corporation; Fortune Brands, Inc.; Heineken N.V.; SABMiller plc; Molson Coors Brewing Company; Carlsberg A/S.
Key ures 2007:
- Marketing spend increased by a further 8%
- Operating profit includes a gain of £40 million in respect
of exceptional items
- Return on invested capital increased 70 basis points to 14.4%
- Strong free cash flow of £1,365 million
- £2.3 billion returned to shareholders: £858 million
in dividends and £1,400 million of share buybacks
Avendo parlato della nascita e dell'evoluzione dell'impresa, analizziamo ora nel dettaglio un fenomeno molto importante che la Guinness ha vissuto più volte durante questo percorso