Appunti, Tesina di, appunto inglese


ricerca 1
ricerca 2

Marketing: is the process of identifying customers' needs and satisfying those needs at a profit.

Successful marketing means: right product, place, price, package, promotion.

Marketing involves identifying a business opportunity in the market;understarding the nedds and demands of the potential customers.

Market Research: is the process of collecting and analysing information about consumers' preferences for goods and services; three categories:

Desk research uses data which has already been collected: government statistics, trade journals, information from competitors (price lists, brochures,etc.)

Field research involves collecting new data through, for example, surveys, questionnaires, interviews,etc.

Electronic research uses technology to provide instant field research.(Market research helps a company in its decision-making process,and has limitations, market change very quickly and people do not always tell the truth or may change their minds.

Market segmentation: a market contains all the customers or businesses that might be interested in a product. Most companies subdivide the market into groups or segments that have similar characyeristics.(demographics:age,gender,income,race; geographics:geographical locations such as regions, cities; psychographics: attitudes, interests,activities, opinions and lifestyles).

Marketing mix: all the activities associated with marketing, they are usually summarised as the 4P's: product: researching, designing and developing the product; price choosing the right price to sell profitably; promotion persuading the customers to buy; place making the product available at the right place and time.

Product: company spend time and money in an effort to research what people will buy. Packaging (imballaggio_attacts attention, creates instant recognition), Branding (marchio); brand loyalty:fedeltà del marchio,the customers to buy the produt again and again; trademark_marchio depositario, exclusive legal protection.

Straight extension means the product is exported without any alterations.

Product adaptation involves the manufacturer changing the product to meet the nedds and tastes and legal requirements of the export market.

Price there are various ways in which a business can work out what price to charge. Market pricing: the business follows the example set by other businesses in the market. Cost-plus pricing: the company works out the costs involved in manufacturing all selling the product and adds on a profit margin known as a mark-up. Market penetration: initially charging a lower price. Market skimming: this involves charging a hight initial price. Loss leaders: selling certain products at a low price and thefore at a loss in order to attract customers to buy other products which will make a profit. Capturing pricing: when a business makes both the "hardware" and "software" element og a product.

Promotion is about briging products to the attention of customers and persuading people to buy them, to launch new products on the market, to increase sales of existing products, to compete with firms that produce similar product, to improve the company image. Persuasive advertising tries to make consumers feel that they need the product;Informative advertising concentrates on giving details about the product. Personal selling:involves contracting the customer face-to-face. More expensive but can adjust the sales message to suit the individual client.

Sales promotions are the ways in which businesses provide incentives for people to buy their products,money-off coupons.

Public relations is the way in which companies try to promote their pwn image to potential customers.

Telemarking is selling over the phone; outbound companies make calls to potential customers; inbound the customers make calls a companies.

TV informacials these are basically long advertisements that last up to half an hour. Spamming: the practice of seding unsolicited promotional messages.

Place this part of the marketing mix deals with getting goods and services from the producers to the consumers.

Wholesalers they take ownership or title to the goods whereas agents do not, and deliver goods from large businesses to small business outlets;

Agent secures an order for a producer and takes a commission;

Retailers buys goods from a wholesaler or producer and sells them to the final consumer,  retailers on the internet can provide the opportunity for 24-hour selling.


© ePerTutti.com : tutti i diritti riservati
Condizioni Generali - Invia - Contatta