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Shakespeare theatre, Elizabethan theatre

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Shakespeare theatre: In the origin was a inn, there was three tires of gallery. There was an inner stage, and the apron stage is a form of  trapezium. There was a trap, where the actors could exit or enter. The theatre was opened without the roof, so the shows were only during the daytime. There was a direct rapport between actors and public, the people often interrupted the plays with questions. The scenery is the same during the play. The women were not included so the parts of the girls were interpreted by the boys. This is an oral theatre so not realistic. The companies had the money in common, so anyone could left the company. Actors were considered very bad.

Elizabethan theatre: Before the shows were interpreted on movable platform in the square. The first permanent theatre was built by James Burbage, it was called "the theatre", it was circular or polygonal, around the theatre there were three tires of gallery. The ticket are expensive so the poors stood near the stage. The most important theatre was "the Globe" erected by Burbage and the company of Lord Chamberlain's Men. The aspect are like the Shakespeare's theatre. The style of the plays was very formal, there were long monologues with philosophical r theological question, with a lot of element of rhetoric.

The characteristic of the Renaissance drama, in the Elizabeth period, is that the poet explore the aspect of the human nature and the history of England. The "Doctor Faust" of Marlowe is an allegory of the humanism, in fact the pact with devil of Faust represent the breaking between the man and God's control, or between the England's politic and the power of the Church.

William Shakespeare was born in 1564 maybe the 23 April, in Stratford. His father was a glove maker, his mother cam from an important family. Before he began his career of writer he was an horse keeper. After he began a member of the company of Lord Chamberlain's Men. He married a woman who is 8 years older than him, but he didn't love her. He wrote 154 sonnet, he used the Elizabethan form, the themes are love, time, dead and beauty. A part of his sonnet are addressed to a dark lady, the other part to a young man, maybe his patron.

Sonnet 18: In this sonnet we can find a ison between the beauty and the nature At the beginning he e the young boy to a summer day, but then he said that summer is too short and the weather in unstable, so he declare that the boy is more lovely and temperate than a summer day. He won't die if the men read the poem.

Sonnet to the dark lady (130): This poem is very realistic, the woman isn't a stereotype, she isn't beautiful, she has black hair, her eyes are different from the sun, her lips aren't similar to coral. It's ironic, the poet ridicules the exaltation of the women in the other poem.

Renaissance poetry: The sonnet: The poets used very much the sonnet, they were inspired by Petrarch. The main themes are love, time, beauty, friendship. The lady is represented very beautiful but also very cruel. The poet at the same time want her love but he hopes she won't surrender. The original Petrarch sonnet is composed by two quatrains and two tercets, the rhyme scheme is ABBA ABBA CDE CDE. The Elizabethan sonnet is composed by three quatrains and one couplet, the rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.

Sonnet: One day I wrote her name: It was written by Edmund Spencer who talk with his love. The poet tried to write the name of his love on the sand but the waves washed it, after he said that everything must die one day, but their love will survive forever so at the end he said that their love will b eternal.

The English Renaissance: We can find the Renaissance in 16 century but in Italy a century before. The difference between Italian and European renaissance are: in Italy the political instability bring to the explosion of individual arts, in Europe it was influenced by the Reformation and it was better into the culture life. The influence of monarchy was an great encouragement, especially during the Elizabeth period. The Renaissance influenced the studies of literary, philosophic, moral . Renaissance  means the rebirth of the classic culture, Latin and Greek. So the attention of the intellectual is for the past. This culture was in part suppressed by the Church. It was diffused by the printing press. An important ure is Erasmus da Rotterdam who published the first bible in Latin. The man was more considered than Medieval.

Modern Science: Coperinicus discovered that the Earth turn around the Sun. Keplero discovered the velocity of the ets varied in relation how far they were from the sun. Galileo discovered the importance of the acceleration.

The reign of Elizabeth: Elizabeth became queen in 1558 until 1603, In her reign the Renaissance was in the high point, and there was great stability and unity. For her ideas the Pope excommunicate her in 1570. She killed her opposers, also her cousin Mary Stuart queen of Scotland. She supported the English navy that won the Spanish Armada . She approved the exploration of new lands. She never married, in fact she is called "the virgin queen".

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